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新华社播发:邓小平关于“一国两制”的谈话
2004/02/19

  新华社编者按:《一个国家,两种制度》是邓小平同志在20年前发表的一篇重要谈话。今天重温这篇谈话,尤其是关于“一国两制”的论述,关于“港人治港”的内涵及爱国者标准的论述,仍有很强的现实意义。“一国两制”的基本内容是,在中华人民共和国内,国家的主体实行社会主义,香港、澳门和台湾实行资本主义。“一国”是“两制”前提。认同“一国两制”首先必须认同“一国”,即中华人民共和国,认同国家的主体实行中国特色社会主义。“一国两制”是中国特色社会主义的重要组成部分。

  “港人治港”必须“以爱国者为主体的港人来治理香港。”“爱国者的标准是,尊重自己民族,诚心诚意拥护祖国恢复行使对香港的主权,不损害香港的繁荣和稳定。”这个标准清楚地表明,爱国和爱港是统一的整体,是不可分割的。任何已经站在治港者行列的人或者有志于加入这个行列的人都必须符合这个标准。

  今天重新发表邓小平同志的这篇重要谈话,再次向世人宣示了中央贯彻落实“一国两制”方针的坚强决心,更是为了让大家全面准确地理解“一国两制”方针,把“一国两制”的伟大实践不断推向前进。

  一个国家,两种制度

  邓小平

  (一九八四年六月二十二日、二十三日分别会见香港工商界访京团和香港知名人士钟士元等的谈话要点。)

  中国政府为解决香港问题所采取的立场、方针、政策是坚定不移的。我们多次讲过,我国政府在一九九七年恢复行使对香港的主权后,香港现行的社会、经济制度不变,法律基本不变,生活方式不变,香港自由港的地位和国际贸易、金融中心的地位也不变,香港可以继续同其他国家和地区保持和发展经济关系。我们还多次讲过,北京除了派军队以外,不向香港特区政府派出干部,这也是不会改变的。我们派军队是为了维护国家的安全,而不是去干预香港的内部事务。我们对香港的政策五十年不变,我们说这个话是算数的。

  我们的政策是实行“一个国家,两种制度”,具体说,就是在中华人民共和国内,十亿人口的大陆实行社会主义制度,香港、台湾实行资本主义制度。近几年来,中国一直在克服“左”的错误,坚持从实际出发,实事求是,来制定各方面工作的政策。经过五年半,现在已经见效了。正是在这种情况下,我们才提出用“一个国家,两种制度”的办法来解决香港和台湾问题。

  “一个国家,两种制度”,我们已经讲了很多次了,全国人民代表大会已经通过了这个政策。有人担心这个政策会不会变,我说不会变。核心的问题,决定的因素,是这个政策对不对。如果不对,就可能变。如果是对的,就变不了。进一步说,中国现在实行对外开放、对内搞活经济的政策,有谁改得了?如果改了,中国百分之八十的人的生活就要下降,我们就会丧失人心。我们的路走对了,人民赞成,就变不了。

  我们对香港的政策长期不变,影响不了大陆的社会主义。中国的主体必须是社会主义,但允许国内某些区域实行资本主义制度,比如香港、台湾。大陆开放一些城市,允许一些外资进入,这是作为社会主义经济的补充,有利于社会主义社会生产力的发展。比如外资到上海去,当然不是整个上海都实行资本主义制度。深圳也不是,还是实行社会主义制度。中国的主体是社会主义。

  “一个国家,两种制度”的构想是我们根据中国自己的情况提出来的,而现在已经成为国际上注意的问题了。中国有香港、台湾问题,解决这个问题的出路何在呢?是社会主义吞掉台湾,还是台湾宣扬的“三民主义”吞掉大陆?谁也不好吞掉谁。如果不能和平解决,只有用武力解决,这对各方都是不利的。实现国家统一是民族的愿望,一百年不统一,一千年也要统一的。怎么解决这个问题,我看只有实行“一个国家,两种制度”。世界上一系列争端都面临着用和平方式来解决还是用非和平方式来解决的问题。总得找出个办法来,新问题就得用新办法来解决。香港问题的成功解决,这个事例可能为国际上许多问题的解决提供一些有益的线索。从世界历史来看,有哪个政府制定过我们这么开明的政策?从资本主义历史看,从西方国家看,有哪一个国家这么做过?我们采取“一个国家,两种制度”的办法解决香港问题,不是一时的感情冲动,也不是玩弄手法,完全是从实际出发的,是充分照顾到香港的历史和现实情况的。

  要相信香港的中国人能治理好香港。不相信中国人有能力管好香港,这是老殖民主义遗留下来的思想状态。鸦片战争以来的一个多世纪里,外国人看不起中国人,侮辱中国人。中华人民共和国建立后,改变了中国的形象。中国今天的形象,不是晚清政府、不是北洋军阀、也不是蒋氏父子创造出来的。是中华人民共和国改变了中国的形象。凡是中华儿女,不管穿什么服装,不管是什么立场,起码都有中华民族的自豪感。香港人也是有这种民族自豪感的。香港人是能治理好香港的,要有这个自信心。香港过去的繁荣,主要是以中国人为主体的香港人干出来的。中国人的智力不比外国人差,中国人不是低能的,不要总以为只有外国人才干得好。要相信我们中国人自己是能干得好的。所谓香港人没有信心,这不是香港人的真正意见。目前中英谈判的内容还没有公布,很多香港人对中央政府的政策不了解,他们一旦真正了解了,是会完全有信心的。我们对解决香港问题所采取的政策,是国务院总理在第六届全国人民代表大会第二次会议的政府工作报告中宣布的,是经大会通过的,是很严肃的事。如果现在还有人谈信心问题,对中华人民共和国、对中国政府没有信任感,那末,其他一切都谈不上了。我们相信香港人能治理好香港,不能继续让外国人统治,否则香港人也是决不会答应的。港人治港有个界线和标准,就是必须由以爱国者为主体的港人来治理香港。未来香港特区政府的主要成分是爱国者,当然也要容纳别的人,还可以聘请外国人当顾问。什么叫爱国者?爱国者的标准是,尊重自己民族,诚心诚意拥护祖国恢复行使对香港的主权,不损害香港的繁荣和稳定。只要具备这些条件,不管他们相信资本主义,还是相信封建主义,甚至相信奴隶主义,都是爱国者。我们不要求他们都赞成中国的社会主义制度,只要求他们爱祖国,爱香港。

  到一九九七年还有十三年,从现在起要逐步解决好过渡时期问题。在过渡时期中,一是不要出现大的波动、大的曲折,保持香港繁荣和稳定;二是要创造条件,使香港人能顺利地接管政府。香港各界人士要为此作出努力。

  Deng Xiaoping on "one country, two systems"

  BEIJING, Feb. 19 (Xinhuanet) -- As the 14th anniversary of the promulgation of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region approaches, the Xinhua News Agency is authorized Thursday to republish late Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping's remarks on the concept of "one country, two systems."

  During separate talks with members of a Hong Kong industrial and commercial delegation and with prominent Hong Kong figures 20 years ago, Deng expounded the "one country, two systems" concept, the requirements or qualifications of Hong Kong people administering Hong Kong and the definition of a patriot.

  Deng said the Chinese Government is firm in its position, principles and policies on Hong Kong.

  "We have stated on many occasions that after China resumes the exercise of its sovereignty over Hong Kong in 1997, Hong Kong's current social and economic systems will remain unchanged, its legal system will remain basically unchanged, its way of life and its status as a free port and an international trade and financialcenter will remain unchanged and it can continue to maintain or establish economic relations with other countries and regions," Deng said.

  "We are pursuing a policy of 'one country, two systems.' More specifically, this means that within the People's Republic of China, the mainland with its one billion people will maintain the socialist system, while Hong Kong and Taiwan continue under the capitalist system," he said.

  "Our policy towards Hong Kong will remain the same for a long time to come, but this will not affect socialism on the mainland. The main part of China must continue under socialism, but a capitalist system will be allowed to exist in certain areas, such as Hong Kong and Taiwan. Opening a number of cities on the mainland will let in some foreign capital, which will serve as a supplement to the socialist economy and help promote the growth ofthe socialist productive forces," he said.

  Deng said the concept of "one country, two systems" has been formulated according to China's realities.

  China has not only the Hong Kong problem to tackle but also the Taiwan problem. What is the solution to these problems? As for the second, is it for socialism to swallow up Taiwan, or for the "Three People's Principles" preached by Taiwan to swallow up the mainland?

  "The answer is neither," Deng said.

  "If the problem cannot be solved by peaceful means, then it must be solved by force. Neither side would benefit from that. Reunification of the motherland is the aspiration of the whole nation. If it cannot be accomplished in 100 years, it will be in 1,000 years. As I see it, the only solution lies in practicing two systems in one country."

  Deng said the successful settlement of the Hong Kong question may provide useful elements for the solution of international questions.

  "When we adopt the policy of 'one country, two systems' to resolve the Hong Kong question, we are not acting on impulse or playing tricks but are proceeding from reality and taking into full account the past and present circumstances of Hong Kong," he said.

  "We are convinced that the people of Hong Kong are capable of running the affairs of Hong Kong well, and we want to see an end to foreign rule. The people of Hong Kong themselves will agree to nothing less," said Deng.

  Some requirements or qualifications should be established with regard to the administration of Hong Kong affairs by the people of Hong Kong, Deng said. It must be required that patriots form the main body of administrators, that is, of the future government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Of course it should include other Chinese, too, as well as foreigners invited to serve as advisers.

  Deng said a patriot is one who respects the Chinese nation, sincerely supports the motherland's resumption of sovereignty over Hong Kong and wishes not to impair Hong Kong's prosperity and stability. Those who meet these requirements are patriots, whether they believe in capitalism or feudalism or even slavery.

  "We don't demand that they be in favor of China's socialist system; we only ask them to love the motherland and Hong Kong," Deng said.


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